Thursday, July 2, 2020
Why Foreign Aid to Developing Countries Should Be Stopped (Essay Sample) Content: NameStudent IDTutorial Section NumberDateWhy Foreign Aid to Developing Countries Should Be StoppedIt is a wise and good idea for the rich nations to share their wealth with developing countries. Developing countries especially in Africa rely a lot on foreign aid to cater for health services, education, food, and other necessities. However, the question that has never been answered is whether foreign aid can help these countries out of the bondage of poverty. Presumably, many countries in Africa are perishing in poverty because of over relying on foreign aid. Many of the countries in Africa gained independence at the same time as some western countries, but their economies still perform poorly (Easterly 1).Foreign aid contributes to inefficiency of many governments in the underdeveloped countries. Various government leaders centralize their efforts on how to get more foreign grants instead of embarking on innovative projects that can wipe out poverty. In addition, too much flow of foreign aid to poor countries increases inflation. This makes the countryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s currency lose value and consequently, the exchange rate worsens. As a result, the government will embark on initiation of measures that will regulate inflation, instead of using that time strategizing on how to develop the country.Inflation brought about by foreign aid makes prices of different goods and services to increase at an alarming rate. This worsens the living standards of many citizens. Moreover, foreign aid makes citizens in these countries lazy. They never think of using the idly lying resources to benefit themselves. Even various governments in Africa have abdicated from their responsibilities. Instead of looking for ways of exploiting the plenty resources in Africa, theses governments spend most of their time seeking aid from foreign countries.Foreign aid money does not create jobs. Therefore, the unemployment problem in developing countries will persist as long as these countries continue to depend on foreign aid. Approximately 60% of people in Africa are under the age of 24. Jobs should be created for this people to help them evade poverty. What western countries should do is invest in African countries instead of sending them aid. Through investment, they will create jobs and help the African people win their daily bread.In addition, foreign governments should give African countries an opportunity to set up their own development plans. Before they tell the African governments what to do, they should first listen to their proposed development plans. A development plan meant for a country in USA cannot work in the same way in Africa. Development plans work according to the countryÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬s economy and resources. Poverty in Africa can only be...
Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4807 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Business Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? From the last many years globalization has caused a vast impact on many industries. UK furniture industry also changed a lot with such a globalization trend. The addition of the technology and the changes in interior designing boosted the furniture business to a greater degree. Moreover, the globalization increased the choice for a consumer and the market started to be more competitive as earlier. (Drayse 2008) Jools Furniture Industries Ltd The overall growth rate and the position in market seem to be of a reputable level. The companys overall performance regarding business growth gives a positive impression. But on the other hand the vision of the chair person appears to be much conservative. The chair person is much interested in profitability rather then expansion and the quality and the scenario show that his emphasis on ROI is much more than any other thing. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Furniture Industry and finance" essay for you Create order The group structure The company owns different divisions. According to the case study, the head office holds the control of the business. The centralized policy of the business has some favorable and some inauspicious effects on business activates. Some of these are pointed out as follow. Advantages As all the major decisions take place from head office so in such a way polices and strategies can be followed more strongly. Supplies can be purchased in bulk to cut down the overall cost. Work will be carried in best interest of the business rather then a department. Much effective control can be implemented. No need to employ professionals for every department in every division. Disadvantages Contrary to above advantages there are also many disadvantages. Employees motivational level suffers a lot. Specialties regarding different fields and division are over looked. Communication differences cause a great hurdle in the business development and will lead to sub-optimization. There will also be a lack of understanding the needs of different departments/divisions. (Ebig 2004) The Financial Fact Its true that the financial statements are fully loaded with lot of numbers. It is quite difficult to get the performance review in a glance over different statements. Different ratios are the major tools to get more information about the business efficiency and to evaluate different scenarios. (Tracy 2008) Many different ratios can be used to assess overall business performance. Some of them are as follow; I have split Profit or Loss Statement and Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet) into two parts for better understanding and making relation between different ratios. The Revenue Growth It has been seen that a business needs some time to get consistency and gain market share. The performance of the overall business can be judged by its sales growth. As time passes organization tries to make much good relations with its customers, which causes sales growth. (Coker 2000)Ã The department wise %age of overall sales growth as compare to previous years is as follow. Division/Year 2008 2009 Quality Product Increase of 12.62% Increase of 9.78 Kitchen Increase of 10.45% Decrease of 3.98 Bedrooms Decrease of 7.5% Decrease of 6.16% Office Increase of 11.71% Increase of 12.44% The quality product divisions consistency seems down in 2009 as compared to year 2008. There may be a number of reasons behind such consistency decline. Export is also a major part of total sales revenue which remained low in 2009 as was in 2008. That may be the major reason in departmental sales decline. The Kitchens division sale is showing some adverse affects in 2009. As per case study the division is maintained under an old mill which may not be able to fulfill the markets requirements. The investment proposal by managing director of kitchen department may contribute up to some extent to generate some great business. Technology always adds some value to overall business performance. The constant decline in the sales turnover may be because of lacking of technological expertise. Turnover from office division is rising consistently. There may be number of reasons behind it. The managing director seems to be a sharp shooter of sales. Even not having any share in export, the departments overall performance regarding sales turnover is remarkable. COGS/Revenue Ratio and Other Expense Cost of goods sale is the direct cost incurred by a business to make sales. Higher the cost of the material, the larger will be the sales turnover required to meet the business activities. The cost also changes with the adopted method to mange the inventory system. (Clyde, Stickney, Roman, Schipper 2009) The ratios between COGS and Revenue are as follow. Division/Year 2007 2008 2009 Quality Product 61.09% 59.55% 58.63% Kitchen 60.78% 63.80% 62.39% Bedrooms 73.63% 68.56% 70.22% Office 61.10% 66.36% 63.03% Except quality product division, there is no other division with uniform behaviors towards direct cost and sales ratio. If we compare the COGS and revenue ratios we come to know that the bedroom division, even with a consistency in its direct cost, makes unfavorable sales in last two years. All the other direct cost lies between 58 to 63 percent of their revenue. But the bedroom division is consuming more than the other divisions. Other expenses are the major cause behind decline in divisions profitability. It consists of many different expenses of administrative and operational nature that affects the profitability of the organization. (Eisen 2007) It has been observed that in the office department, the expenses are more than 24% in 2009 as compare to previous year. On the other hand, the increase in sales re venue is about 12%. This shows twice the expense incurred as compared to the revenue. The amount of depreciation seems to be lower. Hence the expenses that incurred may be of administrative or marketing nature. Vice versa, the expenses in bedroom division fall by 11% approximately, but the sales revenue also suffered greatly. The non cash item like depreciation seems to be of constant value. In kitchen division, an almost constant expense with an even much less staff is quiet stunning. On the other hand the sales also decrease by approximately 4%, which may indicate cost cutting in the marketing side. No new fixed asset added up, hence depreciation is quiet lower then of previous year. Revenue/Employee Ratio The ratio will be a tool to determine the link between sales revenue and the staff acquired to incur that much revenue. It is the simplest tool to evaluate the performance of a department using men power. (OCED 2001) Each employee of Quality and Office division is earning more than 50k for the business. Whereas the kitchen department is going too good as the revenue earned is of about 89k per employee. The worst situation came to knowledge about bedroom department, the department has not only incurred a straight decline in sales revenue but its overall R/E ratio is also in its worst position. The division is earning 24k /employee. According to the audit management letter, it has been noticed that the department is also involved in releasing salaries of those who have been retired. The control objectives should be fulfilled to overcome such issues. It shows the carelessness of accounts department and the payroll (HR) department as well. Interest/Profit Ratio For the firms it is most important to cover the interest within its profits. If the company fails to pay the interest, it may endanger its further survival. Short term liabilities and paying off interest should be the top most priority of an organization. The interest/ profit seem to be of an acceptable level for all the divisions of Jools Furniture Ltd. The second major point to remember is that most of the time the divisions are financed internally. The level of interest is not of much considerable value in Jools Ltd, but the organization must utilize the financing facility to maximize its profitability. It has been notified that highly geared organizations earn more as compare to low gearing organizations; however, the risk involved to that organization is insolvency. ROCE Return on Capital employed is one of the most concerning ratio for a company from the shareholders point of view. This ratio indicates the performance of a company with regard to converting the shareholders investment into profits for them. The ratio is calculated by diving the earning before interest and tax by the total equity of the company. This ratio is one of the most important indicator of profitability and the efficiency of a company to generate profits. (Sinha 2009). Jools Ltds ROCE ratio has increased from 14% during the year 2008 to 15% in 2009. This increase in the ratio is mainly due to the increase in the return generated by the company which is greater in extent when compared with the increasing equity in the business. This is good sign but yet the return is only 15% which ca be improved by a better management of non performing sections of the company. The Liquidity Ratios These ratios can find the current position of any organization. The overall current holding which can be converted into cash at any time can be measure through these ratios. (Brigham2007) The two Current and Quick Acid Test ratios of the company are as follows. The over all current ratio of company seems to be very good. The ratio is about 1.5 which is satisfactory. The company should utilize the gearing facility to invest more to earn higher returns. The quick ratio for the organization is about 67%. The bedroom division and the kitchen division stocks too much inventory in WIP which should be well controlled. It can only be controlled by an efficient labor force when WIP is kept at its lowest level. Conclusion The ratios discussed above show an impact of weak financial management. The finance director must be much vigilant about investing the cash. The major point which has come to mind is the usage of gearing. Finance director should utilize the option of short term or even long term liabilities to get some better returns. The level of long term liability has remained at an almost constant level which indicates that the company has got a potential to generate funds through long term financing and solve some of the operational problems. Therefore the over all financial performance of the company is not quite satisfactory. There are also some incidents of fraud reported which further make the situation worse for the company. The divisional control over different aspects seems to be of low quality. The control regarding inventory should be improved. The receivable balances in bedroom department are depicting abnormality and should be considered. The current facility from vendors side sh ould also be revised. The bed room divisions list of balances regarding trade receivables and payable must be reconciled with list of their balances. The eventually increasing figures of expenses are also of great concerns and should be among top considerations. The managing director of bedroom division is also near his retirement age. He also considers that he is unable to implement control objectives. The presence of such a person in the senior position of the company is a question mark which needs to be answered immediately. The situation, circumstances and the financial figures are truly substantial and strong measures should be taken to avoid any possibility of future failure. Jools needs to address the management issues in the company to allow its future survival and sustainability. Task2 Role of an Accountant Now-a-days accountants are not only the persons to make good calculations. The era has converted many professionals towards much professionalism. With the passage of time the role and the responsibilities of the accountants also changed very much. Accountants are now further divided into different branches. A professional accountant is one engaged in different activities related to different areas of a business. The major concerns of an accountant are regarding the inflows and out flows of the company. An account attracts a trust from the business holders. They are responsible for any fraud or similar anomalies within a business. (Brooks, Dunn 2009) Management accounting is also one of vast field and important part of accounting. The accountants contribute well towards the accomplishment of the business plans and targets. Different types of tasks are performed by accountants like reporting and budgeting and making different forecasts. If a company owes a vigilant accountant who und erstands all his responsibilities and duties, that companys overall risk dwindles. The rapid changes in business need the accountant to be more efficient. Accountants are key players behind business development. Accountants serve a business in many different ways like, auditing, cost controlling, management and many other specialized areas. This shows the need and the responsibility level of an accountant towards the organization. (Lehman 1995) The Role of Finance Director The department of the finance is the major part of a company which contributes towards the short term as well as long term success of the business. There are many key functions which should be performed by finance department. Some of the foremost function and key responsibilities are discussed below to highlight the role of the finance director towards business. Finance department is not only concerned to finance related matters, but the team is also involved in many other administrative and business activities like fulfillment of tax returns, making financials and reporting time to time to asses the overall performance and efficiency of the business. All these activities can be performed efficient only because of an observant finance director. Control and Governance is the major risk towards the survival of any organizations. Directors are appointed to keep the control and to run the organization according to the companys polices. Finance director is a key player in maintain ing the control and finding any fraudulent activity in the business. Control or governance is not only tracing frauds but it also demands directors to implement the strong control procedures, which should be followed by the others. Cost Controlling is one of the major activities that must be managed well by finance director. A loss making organization can survive in a society, whereas the organization that runs short of money cant. Finance director is responsible to take reasonable measures to overcome wealth problems towards the organization. Internal Control must be well governed by the finance department. The finance director and his team are responsible for each and every flaw in control environment. Finance director is one who is the financial policy maker and makes the control environment strong. Reporting to external stakeholders is one of the major responsibilities of finance department. The finance manger of the organization should be well aware of all the changes and up gradations in the accounting terminology. The accounts should be maintained following GAAP. All the reports must ne following the applicable or international accounting systems. The above mentioned are the most important areas to be controlled by a finance director. The above mentioned responsibilities show that the finance division is the most complex but task oriented department in the organization. If the manger or the director directs his team well, the department will definitely contribute positively towards achieving business objectives. On the other hand if the finance department loses the control over things, then the survival of the business may become a question mark. The Fiduciary Duty of Directorship It is a fiduciary duty of director to represent the whole organization. He must take all the decisions in best interest of the organization. The director is not supposed to have any personal interests in any of the companys decision making. Good directors know their limits and powers very well. If a director thinks himself to be not suitable for company he must immediately backup instead of going further. Director is responsible to direct a company and if the director is unable to do so, the company ends up to failure. The Corporate Code of Governance require the presence of non-executive directors in the board of directors but, Jools is currently not having NED in its board. The company should be aware of the consequences of this matter. Finance Director of Jools Furniture Industries Ltd David Green, the finance director of Jools is qualified chartered accountant. He is a full member of the board of directors of the company. The information states that there is no divisional finance director and therefore David Green is assumed to have all the responsibilities regarding the financial matters of the company. David is practicing an autonomous role in the financial management of Jill, and therefore there is a communication gap between him and the lower level of staff as there is no intermediary in between. It can be noted that the company has a large amount as current assets. This means that the inventory level is high as well as other liquid items such as cash and cash equivalents are not utilized properly. The company has been facing issues to generate revenue in the bedroom department. Since a finance director is in a role to control all such matters, the performance of David is not appearing satisfactory here. A constant increase is seen in the expenses of t he company over the years and the trend is almost same in almost all the departments of the company. The increasing expense figure is indicating a poor management by the finance director. As one of the major responsibilities of a finance director is to ensure the profitability of the company, this role is not being fulfilled by David as the expenses do not seem to be under his control. It should be noted that David has to deal with all the divisions of the company alone as he is the only finance director of the company with no directors at the divisional level, therefore a huge burden of work can be a major reason for not performing well in managing the financial matters of the company. Although the revenue is in a constant increase when a comparison of the three years is made, yet the expenses are increasing with a larger pace and overcoming the increasing revenue. Therefore looking at the overall scenario, it can be said that the financial matters are not being managed prope rly and there is a huge risk that such a scenario can lead to future problems for the company. Jools should consider the likely impact of the outcomes if the situation is not addressed properly. The board including the Finance director should assess that how the financial performance of the company can be proved. Before continuing further, the first step that the board of director should do is to follow the requirements of Code of Ethics and Conduct and appoint the required level of Non Executive Directors at the board to ensure that the laws are complied. Although this may become a further burden over the companys expenditure, yet the role played by NEDs can contribute very positively in the best interest of Jools. The presence of Non Executive Directors will ensure a just and reasonable strategy towards the management of problems in existence in the company and also reduce the possibilities of fraud and miss management. The audit management report has also highlighted some p roblems with the financial matters of the company. It has been noted that the inventory has been reported stolen, which indicates that the controls are not strong in the inventory management department and a part of its responsibility falls on the shoulders of the finance director who is responsible to ensure the proper working of all the finance related departments. The audit report also shows that the payroll department is also not functioning properly. The incidents of fraud are also reported in that department too. This is a very serious issue which has to be answered by the finance director who has the direct responsibility over that departments functioning. The sales ledger also have shown a five moths outdated balance which is another indication of fraud going on in the company and the finance director is unaware of the issues. As the information states that David is not accustomed to the business environment of Jessi and thereof it should be noted that his non satisfac tory performance can be due to the same reason. Although David is a qualified person but as per the information provided, he is not suitable for the furniture industry environment and therefore his presence in the board as well as in the company should be evaluated. However, it should also be noted that besides the problems, the finance directors has shown some satisfactory performances as well. He has maintained the liquidity position at a good rate and ensured that the liquidity performance of the company is not compromised. The return on capital for the company has increased from a level of 14% to 15 % from year 2008 to 2009. Although the total increase is very small yet there is an increase. The company has been able to generate a 9% extra earning before interst during the year 2009 as compared to the last year. Furthermore, David has allowed Jools to expand its operations by effectively managing the companys financial needs. Therefore if there are several problems with th e performance of the finance director, there is positive performance as well. Thus the professional expertise of the finance director cannot be questioned and the only problem is the one that the scenario itself identifies that David does not have flair to the Jools business. However, this reason is not enough to justify the malfunctions and frauds being detected in the departments under his direct control. It should be noted that a Finance director is not only responsible for the management profitability and revenue, but also responsible for the decision making related to the sources of finances and their suitability to the company. Moreover, a finance director is also responsible for the management of the control processes in the financial department of the company to ensure that the financial management related processes are operating effectively and according to the required standards. Recommendations There are several fraud detections and other serious issues present in the accounting and finance departments performance. These issues can only be solved by introducing finance directors at the divisional levels of the company and allowing them a full autonomy to oversee the departments take actions to control the issue present. The other solution is to review the presence of David as the finance director as the company can definitely find better candidates for the position who are not only equally qualified and experienced but also have flair to Jools business environment. The other most important step that Jools has to take to ensure the prevention of fraud and other anomalies in the company is to appoint Non Executive Directors in the company and abide the applied laws over it. The presence of NEDs will not only add professional expertise in the company but will also add an independent body to ensure that the shareholders interests are secured and given the prime importance in the company. Finance Director cannot be assumed to owe all the responsibility towards the presence of fraud in the company but the other directors including the managing director have an equal responsibility for it as well. Task 3 Prospects of Investment Proposal The data submitted for the investment proposal to the board shows a positive prospect about its future outcome. The project is expected to earn an NPV of pound;500,000 over 6 years duration. This project is to support the growth strategy of the company and to uphold its future sustainability in the market. Although there is a positive NPV of pound;500,000, yet it should be kept in mind that the project is having a probability of only 25% to get break even. Loan as a Source of Finance The decision to implement the above investment proposal is highly dependant upon the availability of finance. Finance is one of the major limiting factors for any organization. The directors of the company have requested the board to raise a pound; 1.8 m loan to finance the proposed project. However, the board needs to look upon the implications of securing a loan before accepting the request and also carefully evaluate the use of other sources of finance which the company can use to raise finance. (Hall 2010-A) Advantages of Loan as a Source of Finance The major advantage that a loan has is the quick availability of it. Any company can raise a loan through any lending organization as far as it can place a security against the amount. This quick availability of loan makes it the most widely used source of finance. The other advantage that a loan has as a source of finance is the flexibility in the repayment options. The company can negotiate a loan based on its suitability and dependant upon its stream of income. A loan can be generated easily as there are a lot of lending companies offering to give a loan to companies. Another advantage of using loan as a source of funding is the amount which a loan can offer. It has been seen that the lending organizations can lend as much as a company requires, however only if an equally valued security is deposited against it. (Hall 2010-B) Disdvantages of Loan as a Source of Finance Besides the above advantages, loan has a lot of disadvantages associated with it as well. The biggest disadvantage is the interest payment that often becomes a headache for the companies to pay. An interest is actually the payment for using the facility of loan and if its unpaid, it attracts further interest on the amount unpaid, therefore, making loan a costly source of finance. The other great disadvantage associated with a loan is the security which has to be placed against it. Arranging a security often becomes an issue for small to medium sized companies, who usually need loans more to fund their operations as compared to a large entity. Placing a security is also difficult because the lending institution often demand a liquid item to be secured over the loan. The other negative impact of a loan can be seen of the financial analysis of it. A company surviving majorly over loan financing, depicts a high gearing ratio and this high gearing ratio discourages potential shareholder s to invest in the companys shares. Moreover, loans can also decrease the profitability of the company, thus leaving a smaller amount for the companies to pay their shareholders. (Hall 2010-C) Other Alternative Sources of Finance There are a lot of other alternatives to raise finance other than using a loan. Two of them are listed below; Fund Raising through Stock Market One of the major sources of finance for companies is the stock market, where they can trade their shares as a commodity and raise funds for their needs. Companies can issue shares to attract buyers and raise finance by selling those shares to them. The cost of issuing shares is usually the administrative expenses associated with the share issuance and payable to the brokers, however a company needs to be registered on a stack market in order to get involved in stock market trading. Moreover, the issuance of shares depends highly upon the current position of the company with respect to its financial performance and also the present estimates and forecasts of its future performance. Share holders are interested to invest their money in a company which can offer them a steady income as well as a security of their investment. The only security that a shareholder can get is the great future prospects of a company as no physical security is required in this case. (Hall 2010-D) Therefo re, Jools Furniture Industries Ltd can use this source of finance for raising the money required by the kitchen department for creating the new operations. Sale and Leaseback of Assets to generate finance A very important source of finance for companies is its own assets. Instead of securing an asset with a bank or any other lending company, and getting itself involved with paying high amounts of interests, while bounded to follow the restrictions to use the secured asset applied by the lending company, a company can enter a sale and lease back agreement and generate the funds. A sale and Lease back arrangement is where a company sells an asset to someone with an agreement that the asset will be used by the company, but a rent will be paid for that usage. The company retains the unrestricted use of the asset as well as gets an immediate finance for its needs. The only disadvantage associated with this source of finance is the amount of rent payable to the purchase. Furthermore, the asset gets off the companys balance sheet as it no more remains to be an asset of it. (Hall 2010-E) Recommendation Although Jools Furniture Industries Ltd is seeking a loan as a source of finance, but the above analysis shows that there are better alternatives available for it. If the company is registered with a stock exchange, it can issue shares and get the funds needed. However, if a company owns an asset, either spare or not in much use, it can be used to generate fund through a sale and leaseback agreement. The board has to decide over the matter keeping in view the desired outcomes.
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Personalities differ with one person to another. Dealing with other people according to their personality will make the team stronger. Knowing personality type can help me to understand myself better and to improve on my weaknesses. Personality defines individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ inner characters and who they are as a person. Their behavior patterns are consistent around other people as well by themselves. Even though people hide their true personality in social settings, eventually their inner nature comes out. Personality features define who I am. One of my strong personality traits that I have is friendliness. Even though other people are unfriendly and unwelcome toward me, I show kindness to them. A popular saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Treat others as you would likeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These people appreciate who I am and what I do for them. They also notice my faults. People on the other side of the spectrum are those who always think about themselves and believe they are right and everybody else is wrong. These types of people do not see me for whom I am. Majority of the time others view my personality the same as how I view myself. My personality features are generally consistent in my private life as well as my publ ic life. When I am in public or at school, I am a calm friendly person and because of that I am very approachable. People know and remember me for whom I am even though I do not go out of my way to be known. I have taken the Personality Spectrum assessment during my GEN/200 class test. The test displays a picture of a brain divided into four sections. The sections were thinker, giver, organizer, and adventurer. My result was interesting. I have scored 21 for organizer and adventurer and scored 19 for thinker and giver. I would have thought I would score higher on thinker and giver. 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There are many companies that put a lot of importance on the issue of their teams being trainedRead MoreCreative Managment Essa ys : Creative Management1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCreative Managment Essay, Research Paper Creative Management gives creative ideas of how a manger should present himself and how to approach different situations. Creative Management written by Shiegru Kobanashi, focuses mainly on the importance of teamwork, and on group management. How can we transform our present methods of production, under which we become slaves to machines, and regulations for the temporary increase in productivity, into one in which we are the masters of our work? How can we establish
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Introduction Since the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention starting reporting Lyme disease as a reportable disease in 1991 it has been the most commonly reported vector-borne illness is the United States1. It should be noted that Lyme disease does not occur everywhere in the US, and is heavily concentrated in upper Midwest and northeast United States1. This report has been compiled to provide recommendations for prophylactic treatment of Lyme disease once a patient encounters a tick bite. Lyme disease is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by Ixodes dammini, otherwise known as the deer tick3. B. burgdorferi lives in the midgut of the deer tick, and becomes active after a tickÃ¢â¬â¢s gut is filled withÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Serologic testing has not been proven to be effective in identifying B. burgdorferi. Antimicrobial therapy has been at the forefront of research in trying to identify if prophylactic treatment is necessary and what drug and dosing is most appropriate. Antimicrobial Prophylaxis In 1992 Shapiro et al. published their research informing providers prophylactic antimicrobial treatment is not routinely indicated.2 There were a total of 387 patients in the controlled trial, 203 patients assigned to receive amoxicillin and 182 were given a placebo. Either 250mg of amoxicillin or a placebo was given to subjects three times a day for ten days. 15 subjects dropped out and 7 subjects had already shown positive serologic testing to B. burgdorferi and were therefore dismissed from the study. Out of 173 subjects who received the placebo only two developed symptomatic infection with B. burgdorferi; whereas, none of the 192 subjects who were given amoxicillin showed any infection. They concluded the risk of actually becoming infected with B. burgdorferi is so small that the prophylactic use of antibiotics does not make a clinical significance and should not be used. The authors also indicated that most deer ticks are actually not infected with B. burgdorferi, which may he lp explain why so little placebo subjects showed a positive infection after their encounter. While Shapiro et al. was not able to recommend antimicrobial prophylaxis with amoxicillin Nadelman et al. devised
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ronald Reagan was born on February 6, 1911 in Tampico Illinois. Reagan is the son of salesman Jack Reagan and Nelle Reagan. He had one brother named Neil who eventually became an advertising executive. Growing up, ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s father gave him the nickname Ã¢â¬Å"Dutch BoyÃ¢â¬ because of his fat little Dutchman appearance. Reagan attended Eureka College in Eureka Illinois where he was a member of the football team, captain of the swim team and was elected student body president. He graduated with a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Economics and Sociology. After graduation Reagan moved to Iowa and earned a job as a radio broadcaster. In 1937 he left Iowa and moved to Los Angeles where he pursued an acting career. 3 years later he married his first wife JaneÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦On January 20, 1981, he took office as the 40th President of the United States of America. He chose his running mate, who was a former Texas Congressman and United Nations Ambassador, George Bush as hi s Vice President. 69 days later there was an attempted assassination but Reagan did not let that stop them. He was determined to heal and get back into office as quickly as possible. His determination won over many of the citizens. While Reagan was President, the economy made a change for the better. In February of 1981, he made his first proposal to the Congress to lower the taxes and rise the spending on defensive needs. The federal income tax rates were lowered significantly with the signing of the bipartisan Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. The percentage of unemployment compared to when Carter was President decreased from 7.5% to 5.4%. On January 20, 1985, Reagan and Bush were elected back into office by the US citizens. In 1982, Reagan declared a War on Drugs. His focus was to fight for drug-free schools and workplaces, expanded drug treatment, stronger law enforcement and drug interdiction efforts, and greater public awareness. In 1986, Reagan signed a drug enforcement bill that budgeted $1.7 billion to fund the War on Drugs. The bill was strongly criticized. During his entire Presidency, Reagan had to deal with the Cold War. The Reagan Doctrine was created and Reagan went to work trying to begin the collapse of the communist government in Africa, Asia, andShow MoreRelatedRonald Reagan Is The Most Influential Man Of The United States1370 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessince the Great Depression - inflation is at 13.5 percent, unemployment is at 9.5 percent and the federal discount rate is at 14 percent. But after 8 years, Ronald Reagan will turn the country inside out, and make the world a better place to live in. Considered the best president of his century, Ronald Reagan is the most influential man of the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s because he abolished communism by ending the Cold War, developed an extremely effective and successful form of economics, called Reaganomics, and broughtRead MoreThe Great Communicator : Ronald Reagan1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessince the Great Depression - inflation is at 13.5 percent, unemployment is at 9.5 percent and the federal discount rate is at 14 percent. But after 8 years, Ronald Reagan will turn the country inside out, and make the world a better place to live in. Considered the best president of his century, Ronald Reagan is the most influential man of the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s because he abolished communism by ending the Cold War, developed an extremely effective and successful form of economics, called Reaganomics, and broughtRead MorePresident Ronald Reagan s Speech At The 1980 Republican National Convention862 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOutline Anthony Cersosimo Title: Change for the Better Purpose: To inform my audience of Ronald Reagan and his speech at the 1980 Republican National Convention and how it was influential for the US at the time as well as its personal significance for me. Central Idea: Ronald ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s speech at the 1980 Republican National Convention in Detroit was one that gave a sense of unification, hope, and national pride among Americans at theRead MoreReag A Successful Presidency1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSince Reagan experienced such a successful presidency, due to his conservative policies accomplishing their goals, many liberal-minded people switched their views. After the conservative success of the early and mid-eighties, the amount of people who views themselves as liberals decreased. In a 1996 poll, Ã¢â¬Å"only 10 percent of Democratic voters identified themselves as Ã¢â¬ËliberalsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âthat is, people who want economic redistributionÃ¢â¬ (Hannaford). This fact itself showed that people who once believedRead MoreTaking a Look at Ronald Reagan1125 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRonald Reagan Ronald Regan, even after 20 years absent of state office, still manages to captivate American patriotism. As an upheld memorabilia of the United States, Reagan was well renounced as one of the nations most revered public figures. Ronald Reagan was born and raised in the small town of Tampico, Illinois, on February 6, 1911. Given RonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood; Reagans Father had been employed as a shoe salesman at the time of Reagans birth, and his family (which included his mother, brotherRead MoreThe Life And Career Of Ronald Reagan1686 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Life and Career of Ronald Reagan Colorado State University Ã¢â¬â Global Campus HST 300 Jared Faurschou Introduction Ronald Wilson Reagan, elected as the 40th President of the United States of America in 1980. Became one of the most beloved and revered President in modern times. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s most known for bringing the end to the Cold War and helping bring an end to major communist activities in the world. There were several of ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s policies that had an impact on ending the Cold War. InRead MoreGeorge Orwell s The Farmer 1844 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthree-legged chickens.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Well, how do they taste?Ã¢â¬ Now when he asked this, the farmer looked chest fallen and said longingly. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know. I havenÃ¢â¬â¢t caught one yet.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ This was only one of the hilarious stories and jokes that Ronald Reagan told during his presidency alone. Ronald Reagan was the 40th president of the United States, who served from 1981 to 1989, and was one of the most widely known presidents. But his fame and popularity did not just come from his jokes, but his early life, his presidencyRead More The Controversy of Stem Cell Research Essays1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescertain medical conditions. Because stem cells are so adaptable ?physicians can produce cells and tissues, tailored to a patient?s genetic identity, that can treat a wide variety of human illnesses.? (Travis). There is a large amount of diseases that can possibly be assuaged by stem cells; ?devastating diseases like Parkinson?s diabetes, heart failure, and Alzheimer?s.?(Healy). Not to mention that the ?advance toward creating ever more complex tissues might yield a lifesaving patch for a moderatelyRead MoreRonald Reag Foreign Policy2977 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesSmith APUSH Research Paper on the Presidents in the 80Ã¢â¬â¢s and 90Ã¢â¬â¢s Ronald Reagan: Foreign Policy President ReaganÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy took a sharp turn from his predecessorsÃ¢â¬â¢ tactics of easing tensions and instead chose to escalate the cold war conflict, arguing the moral superiority of the U.S.Ã¢â¬â¢s governmental system and framing the Cold War as a fight between the good and free capitalist United States versus the evil communist regime. (Ã¢â¬Å"Reagan Doctrine at U.S. Department of State) This direct confrontalRead MoreThe Limits Of Power : Bacevich Essay1377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesantipathy for cases of exceptionalism; wariness of simple arrangements, particularly those including power; and a conviction that the books should adjust. Just an arrival to such standards, Bacevich contends, can give shared belief to settling America s earnest issues before the harm gets to be distinctly hopeless. The Limits of Power distinguishes a significant triple emergency confronting the U.S. the financial system, in exceptional, confuse, will never again be settled by dependin g on extension
Cardiovascular Disease in the African American Community Causes, Preventions, and Treatments Cardiovascular disease (CVD) refers to the dysfunctional conditions of the heart, arteries, and veins that supply oxygen to vital life- sustaining areas of the body like the brain, the heart itself and other vital organs. Since the term cardiovascular disease refers to any dysfunction of the cardiovascular system there are many different diseases in the cardiovascular category, and many of these diseases are strongly intertwined. Ischemic Heart Disease is the medical idiom for the obstruction of blood flow to the heart. It is usually due largely in part to excess fat or plaque deposits that narrow the veins that provide oxygenated blood toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The body is often able to mask the subtle damage due to the extra work the cardiovascular system is undergoing, but not forever, and for that reason hypertension is often referred to as the silent killer. In fact, approximately 27% of African Americans with hypertension are unaware of their condition. Unfortunately, m any times the first warning signs of hypertension are angina attack, stroke, or even myocardial infarction, all severe cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is defined as a total cholesterol level greater than 200 mg/dl., LDL cholesterol above 130 mg/d, HDL cholesterol bellows 35 mg/dl; and a lipoprotein level greater than 30 mg/dl. An elevated cholesterol level rigorously lends itself towards conditions such as atherosclerosis, which can in turn lead to more serious CVDs. However, cholesterol is not actually a damage mechanism but rather a risk factor for increased risk of heart disease. In many aspects of health and disease, biological and genetic variables are considered to be the most important in reaching a medical solution to a problem. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that social disparities between African Americans and the rest of the American population may have a greater influence over disease prevalence then genetic differences. It is common knowledge, that as a race Afri can Americans are far more likely to live andShow MoreRelatedCardiovascular Disease Essay1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn todays world, there is a rise in the US population adopting unhealthy lifestyles that lead to cardiovascular disease (CVD).1, 2 Stroke and coronary heart disease are the two leading health conditions and leading cause of death in established countries. However, these two types of cardiovascular disease have identifiable risk factors that can be modified to reduce the risk of developing CVD.3 Additionally, due to an increase in the prevalence of obesity, primary prevention for CVD is catchingRead MoreThe Occurrence Of Cardiovascular Disease Essay2112 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesOccurrence of Cardiovascular Disease Vital signs are an important measurement for a general assessment of a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s overall cardiovascular risk. The use of vitals signs should be regularly incorporated in the practice of physical therapy like other settings of the health care as a pre-screening measure. Vital sign assessment provides invaluable information to determine if the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health is appropriate for physical activity or if the patient needs to be further assessed for cardiovascular healthRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Cardiovascular Disease1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStates suffer from some form of cardiovascular disease and almost eight million people die each and every year from it(Meyers). This realization is incredibly disheartening. Cardiovascular disease includes conditions that involve narrowed or blocked blood vessels that can lead to a heart attack, chest pain or stroke. Other heart conditions, such as those that affect your heart s muscle, valves or rhythm are also considered fo rms of heart disease. The threat of heart disease in America is rising day byRead MoreEssay on Nutrition Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesNutrition Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease It is imperative as a nurse to develop an understanding that caring for a patient goes beyond the physical care given and it includes a holistic aspect: caring for the body, mind and soul. This holistic approach can be applied when assessing patientsÃ¢â¬â¢ nutritional status and helping them implement healthy life choices, while living with a disease and possibly the comorbidities caused by the disease. Specifically, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the comorbiditiesRead MoreCardiovascular Disease Is The Number One Killer1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCardiovascular disease is the number one killer in the United States, causing about 610,000 deaths yearly (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2015). Cardiovascular disease is defined as a group of disorders damaging the heart and blood vessels, usually involving the blockage of vessels, which in turn harm the heart (WHO, 2015). A 2011 American Heart Association statement predicted that without intervention, 40% of United States adults will have at least one form of Cardiovascular diseaseRead MoreUnderlying Risks for Cardiovascular Disease Essay1653 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSince 1960 the age-adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has declined steadily in the U.S. due to multiple factors, but still remains one of the primary causes of morbidity and premature mortality worldwide. Greater control of risk factors and improved treatments for cardiovascular disease has significantly contributed to this decline (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). In the U.S. alone it claims approximately 830,000 each year and accounts for 1/6 of all deathsRead MoreCardiovascular Disease : A Disease That Affects The Heart And Blood Vessels1910 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesCardiovascular disease is a disease that affects the heart and blood vessels which may cause various problems relating to the blood flow to the heart. Many complications arise from cardiovascular disease, which may lead up to other li fe threatening illnesses such as heart attack or stroke. According to the American Heart Association a heart attack occurs when the blood flow of blood to part of the heart is blocked by a blood clot; if the clot cuts the flow of blood part of the heart muscle beginsRead MoreCohort Follow-u`Studies: Cardiovascular Disease1291 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCohort Follow-up Studies Ã¢â¬â Cardiovascular Disease: Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death and mortality across the globe, especially because of its increase in low and middle income countries. The disease is commonly referred to as heart disease since itÃ¢â¬â¢s a group of diseases that involve the heart, blood vessels or both. Generally, the disease involves abnormal functioning of the heart of blood vessels, which increases the risk of heart failure, heart attack, cardiac rhythm issuesRead MoreCardiovascular Disease : The Congestive Heart Failure, Stroke, And Coronary Heart Disease Essay1752 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIntroduction Cardiovascular disease comprises the congestive heart failure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. These conditions have continued to be the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States of America today. The occurrence of cardiovascular diseases is influenced by various factors such as physical, political, environmental, and social factors (Kochanek, 2011). These factors entail access to quality and affordable health care services, affordability to healthy diets, conditionsRead MoreCardiovascular Disease And Lifestyle :852 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCardiovascular Disease and Lifestyle Part One: There are multiple factors that lead to the development cardiovascular disease. While some individuals are born with conditions that predispose them to strokes or heart disease, a majority of people participate in a combination of risk factors that lead to the development of cardiovascular disease. A few of those risk factors include a lack of physical activity, smoking, and poor diet. The more frequently individuals expose themselves to these risk
Question: Discuss about the Measurement in Australian Public Companies. Answer: Introduction This report aims to ascertain the importance and role of performance measurement in management control system. It focuses on how support control is meted out to the management systems through measurement of the performance. The performance of the organizational resources is evaluated to pursue organizational strategies. Thereby striving towards achievingstrategic objectives, competitive advantage(Mauboussin and Rappaport, 2015). Australias olive industry has solidly grown to be technically sophisticated from cottage industry with being more export oriented. With the passage of time, the Australian olive oil quality has shown a consistent improvement alongwith production efficiencies focusing on high quality and reasonable product, accessible worldwide. Australian Olive Oil Projects limited in one such company which is associated with growing and manufacture of olive oils variety from olive harvesting. The report will analyze the performance of the company towards the achievement of c orporate vision and goals(Fischer, Prinz, and Lotz, 2010). Role of Cost and Management Accounting in Australian agricultural projects limited Management Accounting helps the managers to utilize the provisions of financial information to familiarize themselves, prior deciding about the issues prevailing within the organization, which alleviates the management and control functions performance(Nixon and Burns, 2012). While cost accounting is apart of management accounting. It is a method of collection, record, classify and evaluate a preferable approach appertaining to cost efficiency as well as capability. It imparts exclusively cost information which the management requires for controlling the current operations and future planning(Moorthy and Yacob, 2013).The olive oil industry is prospering with advancing time as it is meeting up with its vision to achieve a feasible and cooperative olive oil which produces products of high quality for home and foreign markets(Alonso and Northcote, 2010). This business of Orchard was founded with an objective of development and management of quality projects of olive when significant amplification was experienced in Australian plantings. The company is listed on the Stock Exchange of Australia to cater the financial capacity to accomplish opportunities presented in dawning olive industry.The company aims to: Manufacture oil possessing traditional flavors, which are known and admissible in the market. Cultivation of trees with a potential of greater productivity capacity over traditional varieties. Every company has a stated vision, mission by which corporate goals are established. This is further classified into incorporating strategies to achieve the corporate goals. To accomplish greater organizational success, an efficient performance management system is to be established. Ways to Effective Management Following approaches shouldbe undertaken to an Effective management(Sidorov, 2014). Corporate strategy and individual goals should be aligned and well defined and conveyed throughout the company. Advancement of the goals is to be monitored, Performance of the individuals is to be evaluated with feedback Provide compensation by performance. If performance outstrips or meets the aspired standard, then they are gifted with reward. On the other hand, if the performance is adverse to the desired standard, then a development plan is evolved to fill the gap. It is crucial for the managers to be apprehensive about the progress of their employees about corporate goals. Steady assistance is to be meted out to its employees to strive for the targets when they are supposed to be missed (Adams, Lin, and Zou, 2011). Adequate monetary and nonmonetary rewards need to be availed to acknowledge success. Its crucial on the part of managers to review the productivity of its employees from time to time to track down the advancement in goal accomplishment. The olive oil company also undertakes various strategies to meet up with its objectives. It aims to improve its productivity alongwith profitability and management of environment throughout the stages of the supply chain(Kumar and Zattoni, 2015). Findings of the financial and non-financial performance of the company The chief executive officer of AAPL Paul Challis in his review on 30th September 2015 highlighted that 9,51,700 liter harvestation exceeded the expectation and is maintaining an upward trend in manufacture (Voopl.com.au, 2011). The company has bagged largest operating profit in the companies history with a record harvest thereby confirming companys decision to streamline its operations. Mr. Paul has stated their focus in the short term that includes balance sheet consolidation as the cash benefits arising from harvest sale are to be incorporated in the account. The company is proposing to a stretch of substantial harvest at one time while the world price is retracing to historically immense level as a result of diminishing levels of production in Europe. The company is intending to flow through the retail price over the years to come. AAPL has experienced an excess of operating cash flows for the year 2015 measuring $202, which is 189 less to 2014 operating cash flow exceeding $ 598 (Voopl.com.au, 2011). However structured debt informs of Commercial bills and hires purchase contract were streamlined by $ 3,76,708 against $2,10,099 in 2014. In past twelve months, the company has upgraded its business net financial position leading to increasing upto 3.32cents per share from .37 cents per share (Voopl.com.au, 2011). Source: (markets.ft.com) The chart above reflects a considerable upward trend in the performance of the company since 2014. Source: (www.voopl.com.au) The above summary chart reflects the financial performance of the company with an increase in net profit after tax in the year 2015 to be highly more than the previous years. An Executive compensation comprises of financial as well as nonfinancial rewards which are received by the executive regarding their service. This is typically a combination of salary, bonus, call options or shares of the company. This all takes into consideration the government regulations, executive and organization desires, tax law and rewards by performance(Heaney, Tawani, and Goodwin, 2010). Source: (markets.ft.com) According to the reports of Financial Times, one of the leading business news reflects the highest revenue in comparison to the previous yearsperformance. The charts emulate the operating margin to be up with 31.30% (Markets.ft.com, 2016). Similarly, its net profit, as well as operating margin, reveal an upward trend. Therefore companys report, as well as reports provided by business news, provides substantial evidence that AAPL is performing to the best of its capacity, with efficient utilization of all its resources. The company is striving positively towards the achievement of its organizational goals through its outstanding performance. Remuneration policy of AAPL Source: (voopl.com.au) The Board of Directors of Australian Agricultural Projects Limited appointed remuneration committee is subject to determine and review the remuneration policies for the executives and directors. The Remuneration Committee if required acquires independent advice on pertinent remuneration packages on the basis of existent trends in similar companies and objectives of a centralized entity. The company pursues remuneration principles devised to attract and retain qualified and professional candidates striving towards the accomplishment of strategic objectives, thereby achieving a wider result of value creation for shareholders. The remuneration structure highlights are based on the following: The experience and proficiency of key managerial personnel, The key managerial personnel competency to regulate the related segments performance, Consolidation of entity performance includes consolidation of entity earning, aiming to deliver constant returns to shareholders wealth in addition to share price growth. Remuneration of the executives is outlined by of employment agreements. The executive directors are more likely to receive compensation based on performance but do not draw any retirement benefits except statutory superannuation. The managerial personnel bag benefits as car allowances and the company provide fringe tax benefit on these perks. However, there were no remuneration transactions based on performance during the financial year 2014.Agricultural Projects Limited are seeking to provide Long Term Incentives(LTI) to their key managerial personnel. These incentives are aimed to provide options over and above ordinary shares to hook management personnel within the entity by their position. Management Control Theory MCS refers to Management Control System which assimilates and utilizes information and date to evaluate the performance of organizations resources like physical, human, and financial. This control system directs the behavior of the resources of the organization towards implementation of organization strategies. It is an incorporated technique aiming for collection and utilization of information towards motivation of employee behavior and performance evaluation. The control system inculcates many accounting techniques striving to evaluate the performance of activity based costing, balance scorecard, budgeting, just in time(JIT), Kaizen(continuous improvement), target costing, total quality management(Cosenz and Noto, 2015). The necessity for planning and having a control over the system is essential because the organization has its objectives to fulfill, which should be distinctive. The managers of the the company should be ambivalent towards their personal goals, along with formulati on of the entire plan to accomplish organizational objectives. The increase in productivity has always been recognized as a vital source of income improvement and output growth of farm sector in Australia. Agricultural productivity and growth in Australia are estimated by utilizing ex-post and ex-ante methods. By utilization of results we initially illustrate the productivity patterns and growth overtime. After that comparison of the approximated capital services and labor inputs to disclose the difference prevalent between the two methods. The company holds the prominent technical team and has an advanced capacity to institute projects of new olive groves, administer existing groves and grow into other markets. With the company focusing to achieve and maintain good health of its orchard along with emphasizing on incurring the minimal cost to the producer without adversely affecting the quality of the product. The recent data provided by the company in its financial report discloses commendable performance especially when it comes to the logistics relating to handling a record harvest. Therefore confirming that the company is positioned well to achieve the stated objectives. The company is forecasting good health of its agriculture and assessing a rejuvenating program of pruning. Also, the company is not planning to make any compelling capital expenditure over the coming twelve months. The company is looking forward to focusing its attention entirely on strengthening its balance sheet on a short term basis thereby conso lidating profits from the harvest of current year. The company will ingeminate that the companys future performance will be bound with the yearly harvest. The company further expects its harvest on the total average basis to advance in the medium term. The company continues to remain accessible to investment in agriculture that would aggregate skill base and the current asset. Companys ongoing success and projects viability are primarily linked the total value of its harvest. The two managed investment scheme projects are likely to have an initial term up to 2025 following which management and lease agreements might be renegotiated further. Conclusion Consolidated entity performance is taken into account while formulating comprehensive compensation of key managerial personnel, since its incorporation. This has resulted in the level of compensation remaining unchanged despite the ups and downs in the compensation levels caused because of appointment and resignation of key managerial personnel.Australian Agricultural Projects Limited are seeking to provide Long Term Incentives(LTI) to their key managerial personnel. These incentives are aimed to provide options over and above ordinary shares to hook management personnel within the entity by their position. The long-term incentives are being considered to bolster the continuance of employment and to equip additional incentives to the receiver. Subjecting to consent by the shareholders in the general meeting, the directors may be solely issued options. The company has brought in a policy that restrains the directors and the employees of the consolidated entity accessing transactions that are operating or planning to achieve a ceiling to the economic risk or are devised or intending to curb exposure to company securities that are unvested. References Adams, M., Lin, C. and Zou, H. (2011). Chief Executive Officer Incentives, Monitoring, and Corporate Risk Management: Evidence From Insurance Use.Journal of Risk and Insurance, p.no-no. Alonso, A. and Northcote, J. (2010). The development of olive tourism in Western Australia: a case study of an emerging tourism industry.International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(6), pp.696-708. Cosenz, F., and Noto, L. (2015). Combining system dynamics modelling and management control systems to support strategic learning processes in SMEs: a Dynamic Performance Management approach.Journal of Management Control, 26(2-3), pp.225-248. Fischer, M., Prinz, J. and Lotz, K. (2010). Obligatory attention to action goals.Journal of Vision, 5(8), pp.119-119. Heaney, R., Tawani, V. and Goodwin, J. (2010). Australian CEO Remuneration*.Economic Papers: A journal of applied economics and policy, 29(2), pp.109-127. Kumar, P. and Zattoni, A. (2015). Ownership Structure, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance.Corporate Governance: An International Review, 23(6), pp.469-471. Markets.ft.com. (2016).Australian Agricultural Company Ltd, AAC:ASX financials - FT.com. [online] Available at: https://markets.ft.com/data/equities/tearsheet/financials?s=AAC:ASX [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. Markets.ft.com. (2016).Australian Agricultural Projects Ltd, AAP:ASX interactive chart - FT.com. [online] Available at: https://markets.ft.com/data/equities/tearsheet/charts?s=AAP:ASX [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016]. Mauboussin, M. and Rappaport, A. (2015). Transparent Corporate Objectives-A Win-Win for Investors and the Companies They Invest In.Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 27(2), pp.28-33. Moorthy, K., and Yacob, P. (2013). Green Accounting: Cost Measures.Open Journal of Accounting, 02(01), pp.4-7. Nixon, B. and Burns, J. (2012). Strategic management accounting.Management Accounting Research, 23(4), pp.225-228. Sidorov, I. (2014). Synergy Of Corporate Structures And Internal Management.Business Strategies, (1), p.2. Stein, J. (2015). Editorial.Performance Measurement and Metrics, 16(3). Voopl.com.au,. (2011).Victoria Olive Oil Project. [online] Available at: https://voopl.com.au/webdata/files/2015%20Financial%20Statements%20-%20Aust%20Agricultural%20Projects%20(signed)(1).pdf [Accessed 7 Sep. 2016]. Voopl.com.au. (2011).Victoria Olive Oil Project. [online] Available at: https://www.voopl.com.au/ [Accessed 6 Sep. 2016].